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  • 1932
    The foundation of A.M Gorky State Pedagogical Institute of Sukhum by the Decree of the People's Commissariat of Abkhazia. 85 students were studying at three Faculties of the Institute: Agro-Biological, Physical-Mathematical, Literature and Social Sciences. At that time there were only three Departments and 17 staff members (all without academic degrees). Andrej Chochua is the first Director of the Institute;
  • 1933
    Opening of the Russian Language Department;
  • 1935
    Opening of Botany and Chemistry Departments;
  • 1936
    The First Institute Graduation Event was carried out;

  • 1937
    Commissioning of the first Institute building; Creation of Foreign Languages Faculty, opening of Russian and Foreign Literature Department and Zoology Department;
  • 1938
    Opening of Geographical Faculty, Geography Department and Foreign Languages Department;
  • 1939
    Commissioning of the second Institute building; opening of Natural Sciences Faculty; launch of Extramural Department;
  • 1940
    Opening of two-year Training Courses on Foreign Languages for trainers and specialists of Incomplete Secondary Schools;
  • 1941
    before the beginning of the Second World War there were 2076 students, and 103 employees; 7 Faculties were already functioning at the Institute: Physical and Mathematical, Language and Literature, History, Geography, Natural Sciences, Foreign Languages, Physical education and Sports;
  • 1941-1945
    The Great Patriotic War. More than 500 students and staff members took part in the Second World War, 160 were awarded with decorations and medals;

  • 1946
    Opening of Postgraduate School on the base of the Institute on the following specialties: Mathematical Analysis, Physical Geography, USSR History, New History, Georgian language, Georgian Literature;
  • 1952
    Opening of the Evening Department;
  • 1954
    Opening of Abkhaz Sector at the Faculty of Language and Literature offering trainings to Abkhaz School Teachers;
  • 1956
    Opening of Abkhaz Language and Literature Department, the first head of which is Tamara Platonovna Shakryl;
  • 1957
    Opening of Abkhaz Language and Literature Department, the first head of which is Tamara Platonovna Shakryl;

    September 1, 1957 – Opening of Pedagogical Faculty offering trainings to teachers of Primary Schools with three Language Sectors (Abkhaz, Russian, Georgian);

    Since 1957, At the initiative of the Institute Director, Georgy Alekseevich Dzidzariya, the Institute began teaching the History of Abkhazia;
  • 1960-1961
    Opening of Training Cources in the Evening Department: Russian Language and Literature, Pedagogy and Methods of Primary Education;
  • 1962
    the 30th Anniversary of the Institute. By this time, 5400 qualified specialists had graduated the Institute; More than 1800 students studied, 125 employees worked, including 3 professors, 50 associate professors and candidates of sciences;
  • 1965
    Expansion of the Abkhaz Language and Literature Department into two independent ones - Abkhaz Language Department (Head of the Department - Associate P rofessor Kvarcheliya A.A.) and Abkhaz Literature Department (Head of the Department - Associate Professor  GubliaG.K.);
  • 1979
    Transformation of the Sukhum State Pedagogical Institute into the A.M. Gorky Abkhaz State University in accordance with the Decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers of the USSR, by order of the Minister of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the USSR No. 191 as of February 13, 1979. Anchabadze Zurab Vianorovich was the first Rector of the University. A new specialty “Jurisprudence” has been introduced;
  • 1980
    Opening of the Economics Faculty;
  • 1981
    Opening of the Botany and Zoology Department, the Human and Animal Physiology Department, Chemistry Department, and the Base Department of Experimental Biology within the framework of the Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy;
  • 1983
    Commissioning oft he new University building (Zvanba Str, 9);
  • 1989
    Attempts of Georgian Central authorities to close the University resulting in the split of ASU on national/ethnic basis– the Georgian Government created the Sukhumi Branch of Tbilisi State University on the basis of Georgian Sector of ASU;
  • 1990
    Returning the University under the jurisdiction of Abkhazia;
  • 1992
    Opening of the specialty "Biochemistry" with the specialization of "Medic-Biochemist";
  • 1992-1993
    Patriotic War of the People of Abkhazia. 94 staff members and students ceased down on the battlefields as heroes;
  • 1993
    Resuming of University activities in Kelasur in the building of former Georgian Institute of Agriculture (GIA);
  • 1993
    Joining the Eurasian Association of Universities;
  • 1994
    Opening of the Agroengineering Faculty on the basis of the former GIA;
  • 1998
    Opening of the Specialty "Acting";
  • 2000
    Opening of the Center for Advanced Studies and Retraining of Specialists, which in 2007 was accredited with the Republican status); opening of the Applied Ecology Base Department; opening of a new specialty “Socio-Cultural Service and Tourism”;
  • 2001
    Opening of the Basic Forestry Department and introduction ofthe specialty “Forestry”;
  • 2003
    Opening of the "International Relations" specialty and the Department of History and Theory of International Relations; expansion of The Faculty of History and Law and formation of two independent ones - the Faculty of History and Faculty of Law;
  • 2006
    Signing of the Presidential Decree (PD 107) by S. V. Bagapsh “On Giving Autonomous Status to the Abkhaz State University”;

  • 2007
    Creation of specialized Dissertation Councils for the thesis presentation in specialties of "General Pedagogy, the History of Pedagogy and Education" and "Theory and Methodology of Teaching and Education"; creation of Association of Universities of Self-Determined States;
  • 2011
    the Creation of Educational and Scientific Center on Nart Saga and Field Folklore Studies at the ASU;

  • 2012
    Opening of Psychological and Pedagogical Center at the Pedagogical Faculty;
  • 2013
    Renaming of the Association of Universities of Self-Determined States into the Association of Universities of the Newest Independent States (since the time elapsed from the creation of the Association, the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia received the status of Independent States) at the congress in Tskhinval;
  • 2013
    Opening of the Press Service, and the Educational and Methodological Department;
  • 2013
    Opening of the Yu. N. Voronov Scientific and Cultural Center;
  • 2015
    Following the aim of improving the status of the State Language, the Department of the Abkhaz Language was reorganized; two departments were formed: No.1 - for specialized areas of training and No. 2 - for non-specialized areas of training;
  • 2015
    Inclusion of ASU into the Oxford Academic Union, and election of its Rector, A.A. Guaramia as a member of the Union Council;
  • 2016
    Creation of Educational and Scientific structural Unit - Art Department.

The Abkhaz State University was established on the basis of the State Pedagogical Institute of Sukhum, opened in 1932. The whole history of the University is inseparable from the life of the country due to transformations carried out in it. The University team had to face a number of challenges:  the split of the University on a national basis (1989), the collapse of the Soviet Union (1991), the Patriotic War of the People of Abkhazia (1992-1993), and the post-war blockade-all resulting in the limited material and intellectual resources. And at that difficult time, a great support to ASU was provided by the Lomonosov Moscow State University and personally by Mr. V.A. Sadovnichiy, the Rector. The Abkhaz University Students were given the opportunity by him to be admitted to Moscow State University. Once out of their country, many teachers found jobs there as well. The position of Viktor Antonovich, aimed at preserving the unified educational space of the former USSR countries, its integrity and consistency in upholding the interests of universities, education and science in general, played an important role in the recovery of ASU.  Thus, a month and a half later after the end of the war, the Eurasian Association of Universities included ASU at its Congress held on November 17, 1993. The Moscow State University was the first Russian university to conclude an agreement on educational, scientific and creative cooperation with ASU, which contributed to its further dynamic development. ASU Rector is regularly invited to congresses organized by Russian Union of Rectors, Association of Classical Universities of Russia, and meetings of the Educational and Methodological Association of Russian Universities. ASU lecturers and students are actively participating in many international scientific and creative forums. Similar events are regularly held at the Abkhaz State University. Students and lectures(сотрудники) of ASU were given the opportunity to upgrade their qualifications, continue their education in Graduate School and Doctoral Studies, and defend dissertations.

Since 2006 ASU has the status of an Autonomous National University, the founder of which is the President of the Republic of Abkhazia. This opened new opportunities for the development of educational and scientific activities of the University.

Currently, the Republic of Abkhazia is recognized by Russia and a number of other States, and becomes a subject of the International Law. Thanks to Russian assistance, the University is actively restoring its material and technical base.

Studying the experience of Universities in several countries (Russia, the USA, Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Kazakhstan, etc.) enabled to elaborate the ASU Development Strategy as a National University of the Country. The University’s activities are based on universal and developing education principles, preserving the fundamental nature of education with the active introduction of innovative technologies. It is aimed at integrating ASU into the World Educational Space, at ensuring its full participation in international programs, establishing direct contacts and interaction with research and educational institutions of foreign countries. The University's international relations are carried out both through large educational communities (the Eurasian Association of Universities, the Association of Classical Universities of Russia, the Association of Universities of the Newest Independent States, the Oxford Academic Union), and through direct agreements with universities in Russia and business contacts with universities in Belarus, Northern Cyprus, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Venezuela.

Academicians, Doctors and Candidates of Sciences, Professors, Associate Professors, Laureates of various Creative and Scientific competitions, and Scientists awarded High State Awards are involved in the educational and scientific process of ASU.

To date, in the Abkhaz State University there are:

-  8 Faculties, the Department/Brunch of Arts and 42 Departments, where in various areas a level system of trainingis is carried out: Undergraduate, Special, Graduate and Postgraduate Studies;

- More than 3,000 students, including foreign students;

- several Dissertation Councils;

- priority areas of research are: Mathematics, Biology, Ecology, the cycle of disciplines of Abkhaz Studies, Archeology, Pedagogy;

- Gulia Scientific Library

- Republican Center for Advanced Studies and Retraining of Specialists;

- Educational and Scientific center on Nart Saga studies and field folklore;

- Information and Computing Center, Press Center;

- International Department;

- newspaper “Apsua University”.

The Abkhaz State University is the intellectual core of the Country, the center of science, culture and education, actively participating in the development of the Abkhaz Society Development Strategy. The cult of learning, knowledge, citizenship and patriotism - these are the main features that it forms in modern youth.


The transformation of the Pedagogical Institute into the University in 1979 was hasty, without the proper personnel and logistic support. A purely political task was being solved, and until 1989 ASU was facing the difficult process of transition into University Standards.

In 1989, in the wake of the Georgian nationalist movement, the University was divided in half according to nationality, and the Georgian Government created the Sukhumi Branch of Tbilisi State University on the basis of the ASU Georgian Sector. The creation of such a branch served as a detonator for the events of July 1989, which led to human casualties. But the ASU team did not flinch, it mobilized. At the proposal of A.A. Gvaramiya, the ASU Rector, the University came under the jurisdiction of Abkhazia in August 1990. For the first time, young people from the Abkhaz diaspora in Turkey and North Caucasus had the opportunity to be invited to study; Universities of Moscow and southern Russia also assisted a lot; ASU was included into the Association of Engineering Universities of the USSR.


The USSR Ministry on Higher Education started allocating Special Educational Places in Universities of Russia for the youth of Abkhazia, both undergraduate and graduate. ASU began developing at a good pace. But on August 14, 1992, the process was interrupted by the war, which became Patriotic for the People of Abkhazia. The University shared the fate of its People - the vast majority of staff and students from the first days of the war joined defenders of their Motherland.


The war dragged on. There was a threat of self-dissolution of the University. After the March unsuccessful offensive in 1993, the University headquarter was opened in Gudauta. Activities on information collection on each student and lecturer started, Final Exams were held, and organizational issues were resolved to resume the educational process from November 1, 1993 (on the basis of Gagra Secondary School No. 2). A. A. Gvaramia addressed the President of the Eurasian Association of Universities, the Rector of Moscow State University V. Sadovnichy (who in the days of the war accepted 87 of our students as free-listeners and 16 teachers with the provision of a dormitory living in MGU University) with a request to accept ASU into that organization. The news of these events, which took place against the backdrop of frontfierce hostilities, undoubtedly contributed to an even greater spirit uplift of the whole people, and to the belief in imminent victory over the enemy.


And it happened on September 30, 1993. The ASU team made a great contribution to this long-awaited victory. 94 students and university staff gave their lives for the freedom. And if to add graduates of ASU to this number, then the figure would come up to many hundreds. Their names will serve as an eternal example of true courage, patriotism and freedom.


During the occupation of the capital, all institutions of science, culture, education suffered from barbaric looting and destruction. The material and technical base of the University was completely destroyed. The political, economic and informational pressure was put on the Republic even after the end of the imposed war by declaring the blockade. Nevertheless, the educational process was resumed in October 1993. Studies used to be carried out only twice a week in a dilapidated building without glasses, the session was held once a year, and there was no salary paid to the staff- only humanitarian aid. There was practically no public transport - students and teachers used to come to the University on foot.


These and other challenges became not feasible to some. Many employees, including 20 Heads of Departments out of total 38, did not have the possibility to return to the University. The University staff had to be re-formed.

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